192 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. and villages, and taking everything they and their servants desired without payment. It had also become customary to send an enormous number of couriers to and from the court, all of whom seized supplies and even transport when necessary, with the result that the population had disappeared from the vicinity of the main roads. This abuse Ghazan remedied, in the first place by instituting a private postal service of horses, which was not allowed to be used by any one except the monarch's special couriers. He subsequently abolished the old service, and by rigorously suppressing the use of couriers and by other means put an end to the extortions. He also purified and organized the administration of justice, encouraged agriculture, founded military fiefs, set up a standard of weights and measures, and worked by every means for the prosperity of the down-trodden peasantry. His Buildings and Endowments.—His capital, Tabriz, Ghazan adorned with buildings which surpassed in splendour the famous tomb of Sultan Sanjar at Merv. Building on the same lines, he erected a magnificent mausoleum, together with an equally magnificent mosque, two colleges, a hospital, a library, and an observatory. The most celebrated professors and scientific men of the age were appointed with liberal salaries to staff" these foundations, and lands were assigned to .them in per- petuity, the produce of which provided the salaries and upkeep. Nor were the students forgotten ; indeed the entire scheme was thought out with extraordinary thoroughness, and it is to be regretted that a man of such administrative genius was shortly afterwards suc- ceeded by puppet-khans under whom Persia relapsed into anarchy. Uljaito, A.H. 703-716 (1304-1316).—The successor of the great Il-Khan was his brother Mohamed Khuda- banda, generally known by his title of Uljaitu.1 Upon hearing of the death of Ghazan he kept the intelligence 1 Uljaitu signifies "Fortunate." The Sultan was born when his mother was traversing the desert which lies between Merv and Sarakhs. Her attendants, being obliged to halt, were afraid that the party would die of thirst, but upon the birth of the infant a heavy shower fell, and it was in commemoration of this that he received his title.